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At SPACE we take great pride in following the latest developments in the fields of physiotherapy, sports science and surgery. Keeping up-to-date with the evidence base means we can make clinical decisions with confidence that we can then pass on to patients through education.

Through this page, we share research papers with fellow clinicians and patients which we have found useful and which may help guide others in their clinical decision making and in their day-to-day life.


11 November 2019

The epidemiology of injuries in adult amateur rowers

Christina Finlay, Nick Dobbin, Gareth Jones


To investigate the prevalence, nature and factors associated with injury among adult amateur rowers.


Retrospective cross-sectional study.


UK-based amateur rowing clubs.


160 amateur rowers.

Main outcome measures

Frequency, type, location, severity and rowing-related factors associated with injury.


Injury rates appear higher among amateur rowers with the most common injury site being the lower-back. Our results suggest several contextual factors influence injury risk including seasonal phase, training type and training volume.

“In all, these results highlight that no significant difference in injury prevalence was observed between sex and weight; albeit, further research is needed to investigate differences in injury rates between these groups within the amateur population using a prospective longitudinal study and accounting for age. Results also indicated that overuse injuries were significantly more common than traumatic injuries and the lower-back and knee were the most commonly injured body sites. Further, the highest frequency of injuries occurred during the transition from head season into regatta season and there was as association with training volume. Finally, water-based training was associated with injury in amateur rowers; therefore, further consideration on equipment, volume and technique may help in reducing injury rates within amateurs.”

#Rowing #Physiotherapy #Edinburgh #ExpertsInSport #ExpertsInSPACE


10 July 2019

Running Themselves Into the Ground?

Incidence, Prevalence, and Impact of Injury and Illness in Runners Preparing for a Half or Full Marathon

Running Themselves Into the Ground? Incidence, Prevalence, and Impact of Injury and Illness in Runners Preparing for a Half or Full Marathon
Published: Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2019 Volume:49 Issue:7 Pages:518–528 DOI: 10.2519/jospt.2019.8473

09 July 2019

Injection or Orthotic for Plantar Fascia Pain

Plantar heel pain is a common foot complaint that causes significant disability and poorer health-related quality of life. Foot orthoses and corticosteroid injection are effective treatments for plantar heel pain; however, it is unclear whether one is more effective than the other.

The aim of this trial was to compare the effectiveness of foot orthoses and corticosteroid injection for plantar heel pain.

One hundred three participants aged 21 to 72 years (63 female) with plantar heel pain were recruited from the community and received an intervention. For the primary outcome of foot pain, corticosteroid injection was more effective at week 4, however, foot orthoses were more effective at week 12.

Corticosteroid injection is more effective than foot orthoses at week 4, but this effect does not last, and appropriately contoured foot orthoses are more effective than corticosteroid injection at week 12. However, patients may not notice a clinically worthwhile difference between the interventions.

Effectiveness of Foot Orthoses Versus Corticosteroid Injection for Plantar Heel Pain: The SOOTHE Randomized Clinical Trial

Published: Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2019 Volume:49 Issue:7 Pages:491–500 DOI: 10.2519/jospt.2019.8807

24 June 2019


All information was taken from

The aim of the study was to explore the role of tennis in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. The focus was on risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle, including low fitness levels, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. A literature search was undertaken to retrieve relevant articles.

The general findings of this review indicate that those who choose to play tennis appear to have positive health benefits. Specifically, lower body fat percentages, more favourable lipid profiles, and enhanced aerobic fitness contributed to an overall improved risk profile for cardiovascular morbidity. Furthermore, numerous studies have identified better bone health not only in tennis players with lifelong tennis participation histories, but also in those who take on the sport in mid-adulthood.

What is already known on this topic
  • Regular moderate physical activity has a beneficial effect on health and is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and a positive effect on bone health.

  • Recommendations prescribe the accumulation of at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity, almost daily, relative to the physical fitness of the individual.

What this study adds
  • This study specifically focuses on the relation between tennis and risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle.

  • There is a positive association between regular tennis participation and health benefits, including improved aerobic fitness, a leaner body, a more favourable lipid profile, improved bone health and a reduced risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.


05 January 2018

Anterior knee pain is a complaint many practitioners will see on an almost daily basis covering a huge range of age groups and fitness levels. The January edition of JOSPT contains a systematic review looking at the benefits of strengthening both the hip and the knee in PFP in comparison to strengthening the knee musculature alone. The guide for clinicians laying out the findings is below.
























06 December 2017

We are always keen to promote free resources that can better clinician’s practice so on that note we would direct you over to Clinical Edge who for a very short time have a selection of free videos from a number of superb researchers and clinicians. So don’t wait to click on this link







02nd November 2017

The BJSM recently published a Delphi study looking at the Return to Play Decision making in Hamstring Injury. The infographic on their conclusion can be seen below and may make for some interesting reading and discussions with team managers/coaches



























18th May 2017

This month saw the release of the new Sports Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition. The BJSM published the tools free alongside the methodology that went into developing the guidelines and consensus statement. These tools are a must have for all those working in sports no matter what the age of your athletes.

23rd April 2017

This months BJSM contains two papers looking at the psychological variables involved in common presentations we will all see, tendinopathy and patellofemoral pain. Both papers highlight the importance of treating each patient holistically as well as the psychological barriers that may exist to symptom improvement. The patellofemoral paper is OPEN ACCESS


27th March 2017

This month saw the release of a new “Cutting Edge Clinicians” mailing list from Tom Goom at Running Physio. Through this he will be releasing a series of downloads on a range of topics for those who treat runners. The first release is a glute circuit infographic with an explanation of the reasoning behind the exercise selection.

Follow the link for the infographic and breakdown of the exercises as well as instructions on signing up for the mailing list


10th January 2017

To start the new year we have provided a link to some superb free resources from La Trobe University in Australia in the build up to the next Patellofemoral Retreat 2017 which is being held in Melbourne. There are some great free presentations you can download on the deficits in patients with PFP and also on the treatment of this sometimes challenging patient group.

6 great resources from patellofemoral symposium at SMA Melbourne conference


27th October 2016

This month saw the relsease of the Warwick Consensus Statement on Femeroacetabular Impingement Syndrome. The term ‘FAI syndrome’ emphasises the fact that the patients in question are symptomatic, suffering from a clinical disorder that is characterised by a triad of symptoms, clinical signs and radiological findings. The statement looks at factors such as the clinical signs, radiology, treatment recommendations and prognosis for patients presenting with possible FAI and presents the information alongside an infographic. The paper is open access. Alongside there are two free podcasts discussing the paper and its recommendations.

PT Inquest Episode 93: Warwick Agreement on FAI Syndrome


29th September 2016

The Running Physio Tom Goom released an excellent paper this year in JOSPT looking at proximal hamstring tendinopathy. The full paper can be accessed here and a post containing videos of the rehab exercises is also included.

22nd September 2016

This month saw the release of The Copenhagen Consensus Statement looking at children, youth, and physical activity in schools and during leisure time. As physiotherapists we should be one of the main professions advocating sport and exercise to children so this statement is a very welcome piece of work


10th August 2016

This week saw the release of two very good overview papers in Physical Therapy in Sport looking at the female triathlete. Firstly looking at the masters athlete and secondly at the post-partum triathlete. Both papers provide a good overview of biology and the aging process as well as physiological considerations and training programs. These are two populations we see a lot of at SPACE and both would benfit from good evidence based management.

The master female triathlete

The postpartum triathlete


01st August 2016

Running as a means of exercise is popular for both recreation and competition. Injury rates reported vary between 19% to 78% and a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been highlighted as potential risk factors. Multiple interventions have therefore been developed to address these factors. Despite extensive research a lack of long term treatment strategies remains a frustration for runners and clinicians.

Alteration and manipulation of running technique may help to reduce load in certain muscles or tissues. The field of run retraining is gathering interest and a number of publications are now available to help the clinician advise patients. While a number of the tools suggested in theses papers may not be available in the average clinic it does not mean that a good working knowledge or ingenious use of a mobile phone may not lead to positive changes for your patients.


Running Retraining to treat lower limb injuries: a mixed methods study of current evidence synthesised with expert opinion

  • Paucity of current evidence in injured populations but substantial evidence for immediate changes to biomechanics in healthy populations
  • Limited evidence to support run retraining in exertional lower leg pain and PFP
  • Retraining options that clinicians may consider include strategies to reduce over-stride and increase step rate, altering strike pattern, reducing impact loading, increasing step width and altering proximal kinematics


Runners with PFP have altered biomechanics which interventions can alter: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Limited evidence of reduced hip adduction post gait re-training
  • No evidence of of any favourable kinematic change post “strengthening” exercise
  • Both interventions lead to significant reductions in pain and improvements in function


Gait Re-training for healthy and injured runners using augmented feedback: A systematic literature review

  • Real time visual and auditory feedback is effective in modifying running mechanics in treating runners with with PFP and exertional compartment syndrome
  • Superior results may be achieved with multiple feedback sessions with ever decreasing cues given


June 2016

The International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat took place in Manchester in 2015 where a number of the leading researchers in the topic met to produce a consensus statement based on evidence from January 2010 to June 2015. Despite its high prevalence among active individuals and frequent presentations there are few published guidelines to help clinicians choose the appropriate evidenced based treatment. The first part of the statement looks at the terminology, definitions, clinical examination, natural history, patellofemoral osteoarthritis and patient reported outcome measures.

The second part of the consensus statement addresses exercise, taping, bracing, foot orthoses and combined interventions.



Jan 2016

This paper from Physical Therapy in Sport looks at Electrical stimulation as a treatment intervention to improve function, edema or pain following acute lateral ankle sprains: A systematic review. Ankle sprains are one of the most common MSK injuries we will see and managing edema can have a large impact on pain and dysfunction.  Excitable tissues are targeted with therapeutic electrical stimulation in an attempt to reduce pain and/or muscle spasm, facilitate muscle re-education, strengthen muscles, minimize disuse atrophy, and aid in the resolution of edema.

This paper from the Journal of Foot and Ankle Research looks at Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain: a non-randomised controlled trail evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. While this is a non-randomised trial, taping is a highly used intervention in ankle sprains and recurrence rates are also very high. The decision to use bracing or taping with our patients can sometimes be down to our own bias but it is always useful to see what the evidence has to say.

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